Legend says that the Wall was infused with powerful magic spells by the Children of the Forest that prevent the White Walkers from crossing it. The ancient order of the Night's Watch was founded to defend the Wall should the White Walkers return to invade the realms of men once more.
In the present day, most believe that the Long Night is just a children's story, and that the White Walkers, Children of the Forest, and giants are nothing more than legends. Even the few who believe they did once exist think they went extinct thousands of years ago. Certainly, none or very few were seen for the next eight thousand years between their supposed defeat and the time of Robert's Rebellion.
As the War of the Five Kings begins, disturbing reports have come back from the scouts of the Night's Watch that, along with winter coming after an abnormally long summer, the White Walkers have begun to return. The situation leaves only the under-supported and under-manned Night's Watch to stand between the White Walkers and the realms of men. She suggests the story of Duncan the Tall and Bran replies that he hates her stories —he prefers the scary ones. She retorts that he is a "sweet summer child" who knows nothing about fear, and tells him that fear is for the winter and for the Long Night, a winter season thousands of years ago that lasted a generation, in which those who didn't freeze to death had to face the White Walkers , who ventured south for the first time and swept through Westeros.
During Stannis Baratheon 's march to Winterfell , the weather turns for the worse and a snow storm delays his army. Stannis is visibly shocked and disgusted by the suggestion, asking her if she has lost her mind. She insists that Stannis must be the undisputed king when the the Long Night comes, but he rebuffs her and orders her to leave his presence.
When Lord Commander Jon Snow and the wildling envoy Tormund travel to Hardhome to convince the Free Folk sheltered there to come back with them to Castle Black in order to settle south of the Wall , Jon Snow argues that the Long Night is coming and the dead come with it —and only together they can give the White Walkers a fight, and maybe even beat them back. Snow's words prove immediately prophetic, as during the process of taking the wildlings to the ships the White Walkers arrive with thousands of wights and massacre most of the Free Folk.
While autopsying the body of Maester Weyland , Archmaester Ebrose tells Samwell Tarly that despite the widespread skepticism of his colleagues, Ebrose believes that the Long Night cannot be pure fabrication, since numerous unconnected sources all describe similar events. He maintains however, that if another, similar event is about to occur, that Westeros and its inhabitants will find a way to survive it.
Numerous engravings. An account of the Arctic north, by the world traveler responsible for first discovering the existence of pygmies. More information about this seller Contact this seller 2. Condition: GOOD. BURNS illustrator. Black and white illustrations. Title and decoration gilted. General wear. Tight binding. More information about this seller Contact this seller 3. Published by Scribner, New York From: William R.
About this Item: Scribner, New York, Condition: Very Good. Dust Jacket Condition: None. The record of a winter journey from southern Sweden thru Finland to Nordkyn. More information about this seller Contact this seller 4. Both hinges cracked, thus good only, although otherwise not an unattractive copy. More information about this seller Contact this seller 5. First Edition. Hinges cracked and binding split. More information about this seller Contact this seller 6. From: Gyan Books Pvt. Delhi, India.
About this Item: Singular, "kapta. One of the kaptor was much larger than the other, for in case of intense cold one is worn beneath the other with the fur inside, and the outside one with the fur outside. I got a pair of trousers made of skin from the legs of the reindeer, of which the fur though short is considered the warmest part of the animal, as it protects his legs, which are always in the snow. The provisions of nature are wonderful!
There are no openings to the Lapp trousers, so that no cold air can reach the body. They are fastened round the waist by a string and are tied above the ankle. There the fur is removed and the leather is made very soft so that it may go round the shoe. I got two pairs of shoes made of the skin of the reindeer near the hoof, with the fur outside. This part is said to be the warmest part of the whole skin. All the Lapp shoes are sharp pointed, the point turning upward. They are bound at the seams with red flannel.
The upper part fits above the ankle. They were large enough for me to wear two pairs of thick, home-knitted stockings and Lapp grass to surround the foot everywhere without pinching it. Long narrow bands of bright color are attached to them. These bands are wound around the legs above the ankles, thus preventing snow and wind from penetrating. These shoes can only be used in cold weather when the snow is crisp, and are especially adapted for skees, as they are pointed and have no heels.
I procured also four pairs of mittens, one made of the skin of the reindeer near the hoof, another of wool with a sort of down, the third of cow's hair, and the fourth of goat's hair; the two latter are the warmest, but they are very perishable. I also got two pairs of very thick home-knitted stockings.
These were of wool. I succeeded in getting two other pairs made of cow's hair, and another pair made of goat's hair, and I was especially cautioned  to handle them gently when I put them on or took them off—likewise with the mittens of goat's and cow's hair. I also got a vest made of soft reindeer skin to put on over my underwear, and two sets of thick underwear of homespun, for these are much warmer than those that are made by machinery. I added to my outfit one pair of long and another shorter pair of boots for wet weather in the spring, when the snow is damp and watery.
These boots were made of the skin of the lower part of the hind legs of reindeer, the fur being scraped off. The leather is black and it is prepared in such a way as to exclude water or moisture. They were rubbed with a composition of reindeer fat and tar. Then I bought a square Lapp cap, the top filled with eider down. The rim could be turned down to protect the ears and the forehead. After procuring my Lapp outfit, I thought I would try to dress myself in my new garments.
The friend who accompanied me said: "I will show you how to prepare your feet before you put your shoes on. One can never be too careful, otherwise the feet are sure to be cold on a journey. I put on my two new pairs of hand-knitted stockings. He surrounded my feet over the stockings with Lapp grass; then he put my shoe on most carefully, with the lower part of the trousers inside, and then wound the bands not too tight round my ankle, saying, "Now your feet will be warm all day even if you spend all your time on skees.
You see how careful  I have been in putting on your shoes. Dressed as you are you can defy the cold. If you follow the advice I have given you, you will never have cold feet no matter how long you drive or walk in the snow. But take great care that neither shoes, nor stockings, nor grass be damp. I think it will be well for you to let a Lapp or a Finn put your shoes on before you start on a long journey—until you can do it yourself quite well. The "shoe grass" of which I have spoken grows in the Arctic regions in pools in the summer. It is gathered in great quantity by the Laplanders and Finlanders, who dry it and keep it carefully, for it is indispensable in winter in their land of snow and cold.
It has the peculiarity of retaining heat and keeping the feet warm and absorbing the moisture. I always travelled with a good stock of that grass, twisted and knotted together in small bundles. Then I looked at myself in the looking-glass, and for the first time saw how I appeared in my new outfit, my Lapp costume. The frontispiece will show you exactly how I was dressed without a hood , for it is from a photograph. Unfortunately, being a bachelor, I don't know how to take care of things, and my costume, gloves, stockings, and mittens have been eaten up by moths, and I have had to throw them away.
But I appeared before the American Geographical Society in New York dressed in this suit, seated in my Lapp sleigh, with a stuffed reindeer harnessed to it, and my bearskin over me. To complete my outfit I added two large reindeer-skin bags, one larger, so that the smaller one could be put inside it without much difficulty. I was to sleep in these bags when obliged to rest out doors on the snow.
One bag was sufficient in ordinary cold weather—say 15 or 20 degrees below zero; the other I would use when the thermometer ranged from 25 to 40 or 50 degrees below zero. What the Arctic Circle is. It is the southernmost limit of the region where the sun disappears in winter, under the horizon, for one day. At the North Pole on the 22nd of September the sun descends to the horizon and then disappears till the 20th of March, when it reappears and remains in sight above the horizon until the 22nd of September.
So at the pole the year is made of one day and one night. On the 22nd day of December it disappears at the Arctic Circle for one day only. The space between the Arctic Circle and the pole is therefore called the Arctic region, or the Frigid Zone. Consequently, the further one advances to the north, the longer the duration of the night. I will tell you the causes of this phenomenon of the Long Night. The earth revolves about the sun once every year, and rotates on its axis once in twenty-four hours, which makes what we call a day. Rotate means to move round a centre; thus the daily turning of the earth on its axis is a rotation.
Its annual course round the sun is called a revolution. The axis about which the daily rotation takes place is an imaginary straight line passing through the centre of the earth, and its extremities are called poles, hence the names of the North and the South pole. The diurnal movement is from West to East and takes place in twenty-four hours. The earth's orbit, or the path described by it in its annual revolution about the sun, is, so to speak, a flattened circle, somewhat elongated, called an ellipse. The ecliptic is the path or way among the fixed stars which the earth in its orbit appears to describe to an eye placed in the sun, for the sun is the fixed centre and not the earth.
The earth, therefore, in moving about the sun, is not upright, but inclined, so that in different parts of its course it always presents a half, but always a different half, of its surface to the sun. Twice in the year, 21st of March and 21st of September, the exact half of the earth along its axis is illuminated. These two dates are called equinoxes, March 21st being the vernal, and September 21st being the autumnal, equinox. As the earth moves in its orbit after March 21st, the North Pole inclines more and more towards the sun, till June 21st, after which it turns away from it.
On September 21st day and night are again equal all over the earth, and after this the North Pole is turned away from the sun, and does not receive its light again till the following March. It will thus be seen that from the autumnal to the vernal equinox the North Pole is in darkness and has a night of six months' duration, during which time the sun is not seen. Therefore, any point near the pole is, during any given twenty-four hours, longer in darkness than in light.
The number of days of constant darkness depends on the latitude of the observer. At the pole the sun is not seen for six months, at the Arctic Circle it is invisible, as I have said, for only one day in December. This "Land of the Long Night" commences at Nordkyn, or the most northern point of the continent of Europe,—or at North Cape, but five miles distant—on the 16th of November. The whole sun appears on that day, its lower rim just touching above the horizon at noon.
The next day, 17th of November, the lower half of the sun has disappeared, and the following day, the 18th, it sinks below the horizon and does not show itself again until the 24th of January—hence the night there lasts sixty-seven days of twenty-four hours each. And at the Arctic Circle the sun is only completely hidden on the 22nd of December. The following table shows you the dates of the disappearance of the sun, and of its reappearance at the principal places to which we are going. Fine Weather Leaving Haparanda. The atmosphere was clear, and not a cloud was to be seen in the pale blue sky, turning into greenish as it approached the horizon.
There was not a breath of wind. Once the thermometer marked 30 degrees below zero. Keep your ears covered, and protect them with your hood. If it becomes colder put on your mask. I thanked them for their kind advice, but replied: "No mask for me just now, I want to breathe this pure invigorating air as much as I can. I want it to reach my lungs. Often it lasts quite a while.
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Then we bade good-bye to each other. They tucked the sheepskin round me, and bade the driver to take good care of Paulus. Soon after this we were out of Haparanda and on the highroad leading to Pajala, which was about one hundred and ten miles further north, there being ten or twelve post stations between the two places. Sleighing was fine, the road had been used much, so we went on at a very fast pace. It was just the weather people, horses, dogs, and reindeer liked.
I liked it also very much, for it was so exhilarating, and I felt so well and so strong. I was ready, nevertheless, for all kinds of weather, and I was fully prepared to meet great storms, for I wanted to encounter the blizzards of the Arctic regions just to find out how strongly the wind could blow. I found out later! I changed horses at several post stations during the day, among them the stations of Korpikyla, Niemis, Ruskola, and Matarengi.
I found that the Finnish language was now prevalent, Swedish being only spoken by comparatively few people.
That day was the end of the fine weather. Towards evening the wind was blowing very hard, and it increased in strength every minute until it blew a perfect hurricane. Then what my friends had said to me came to mind. It was indeed a fearful windstorm! The gale had become such that the horse at times did not seem to have strength enough to pull our sleigh. The snow flew in thick cloudy masses to a great height, curling and recurling upon itself and blinding us.
Fortunately our robes were fastened very securely. I wore my hood, and it was so arranged that my eyes were the only part of my face that was not covered. The wind was so powerful that our sleigh was in continual danger of upsetting, and was only saved because it was so low. I was glad indeed when I reached the hamlet of Matarengi with its red-painted log church, two hundred years old, and separate belfry of the same color. The windstorm lasted three days.
During that time I found that the temperature varied from 8 to 22 degrees below zero. Then it became calm, the sky was perfectly clear, and the mercury marked 40 degrees below zero. It was fine, and I made ready to continue my journey. Wherever I changed horse and sleigh, before starting I shook hands with the station master and his family, and after this bade good-bye to the driver who had brought me to the place. One must not forget that little politeness in these northern lands, otherwise the people would think you ill-bred or proud and would dislike you.
No man has ever made friends by being proud or conceited. It is, after all, very silly, and often very ill-bred. I have found that one gets along much better in the world by being polite and obliging. In the former case you are happy; in the latter discontented and wretched. I always feel sorry when I meet people who are proud or conceited.
Often I laugh at them in my sleeve, and when that pride or conceit becomes overbearing I have great contempt for them, and do not wish to have anything to do with them. I approached very fast the regions of "The Land of the Long Night. Towards noon the wind increased again, and soon I was in a worse gale than before. Suddenly I saw dimly through the clouds of snow the dwellings of a farm. He suddenly turned to the right, entered the yard, and stopped before the dwelling-house of the farm.
I alighted. I was so dizzy from the effects of the wind that I could not walk straight, and tottered about for a minute or more. My driver was in the same condition. I entered the house and found myself in a large room, in the midst of a family of Finlanders, whose language is very unlike the Swedish or Norwegian. I was welcomed at once by all.
I looked around, and saw a queer-looking structure, built of slabs of stone plastered over. It was about seven feet square, the inside oven-like in shape. They were just lighting a fire; then the door was closed. In one section of the structure was an open fireplace used for cooking. Poles were secured to the ceiling near the fireplace, upon which hung garments,—stockings, shoes, boots, and other articles.
In the middle of the room was the usual trap-door leading into the cellar. There were two large hand looms upon which two girls were weaving.
These two looms were very old and had been several generations in the family. Three other girls were occupied with wheels, spinning wool and flax. Along the walls of this large room, which was about twenty feet square, were a number of bench-like sofas, used for beds. Two or three wooden chairs, and a large wooden table surrounded by wooden benches, made up the rest of the furniture.
The stove began to heat the room fearfully, for after the firewood had been reduced to charcoal, and the fumes from it were gone, the sliding trap-door in the chimney had been closed, thus preventing the heat from escaping. The thick walls of the oven-like stove had been heated, and threw out a great deal of heat, which to me soon became unbearable. The farmer said to me that the walls would remain warm for two or three days. The windows were all tight; none could be opened, and the only ventilation  came through the door when some one came in or went out. I went out and looked at the farm buildings while my sleigh was being made ready.
I was surprised to see the buildings of the farm and the big timber of the log house, for I was so far north. The yard was enclosed by houses on three sides. The dwelling-house, the barn, and the cow-houses were the largest buildings. There were besides a blacksmith shop, a storehouse, and a shed for carts.
All these buildings were painted red. In the middle of the yard was an old-fashioned well, with its sweep, having at one end a bucket and at the other a heavy stone, and surrounded by a thick mass of ice. From the well there was a trough going into the cow-house, which I entered. The cattle were small and well-shaped and in good order.
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The building was very low, the windows very small and giving but little light. The floor was entirely planked over, and there were pens on each side. Looking towards the end of the building I saw a girl standing by a huge iron pot, about four feet in diameter and three feet deep, encased in masonry. She was putting coarse marsh grass into the pot, which was filled with water made warm by a fire underneath. A number of sheep were penned in a corner. In some the dwellings are of two stories, but these were the great exception. In the mean time supper had been prepared. Dry mutton as tough as leather but cut very thin, smoked reindeer meat, hard bread, butter, cheese, two wooden bowls of buttermilk, and fish were put on the table.
This was a great repast, in my honor. There was no tablecloth, no napkin, no fork, the flat bread was used instead of plates, we had wooden spoons for the sour milk, and helped ourselves to it from the common dish. A little after supper came bedtime. The girls, looking at the clock, which marked nine, suddenly got up to make the beds ready. They pulled out the sliding boxes, in one of which three of them were to sleep.
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The boxes were filled with straw and hay, and had homespun blankets or sheepskins, and eider down or feather pillows. The sofa-like beds were all along the walls, for there was a large family. It was well that I was at the farm. A more terrific windstorm than all those I had seen before, arose during the night. In the morning the snow swirled to an immense height, hiding everything from sight; the whole country was enveloped in a thick cloud; the huge snowdrifts were carried hither and thither.
Then I bade farewell to the good farmer and his wife, and once more I was on my way to "The Land of the Long Night," which was now very near. The next day I came to a little lake the natives called Kunsijarvi, and further on I came to still another lake called Rukojarvi; and between these two I had crossed the Arctic Circle. But it was January, the sun showed itself above the horizon at noon. Near the shore of Lake Rukojarvi was a solitary farm, where I stopped. Skees, or the Queer Snowshoes of the North. IN the morning Joseff, the owner of the farm, said to me: "Paulus, before you go further on your journey you must learn to go on skees; otherwise you will not be able to travel, for the snow is very deep further north.
I will teach you how to use skees, but in order to learn you must remain with us for some time. Then pointing to the lake near by, he said, "This is the place where you are to learn. It will be easy for you to walk with them, for the surface of the lake is smooth and flat. After saying this, he went into one of the outer buildings of the farm and came out with several beautiful pairs of skees, and handed one of them to me with these words: "I give them to you; when you wander further north and walk with them, think of me.
How proud I shall be when I walk with them. These skees, or snowshoes of northern Europe, are made of wood from the fir tree; at their thickest part, in the centre, they are between four and five inches in width. Here, where the foot rests, there is a piece of birch bark fastened, over which there is a loop, and through this loop the foot passes. That part of the skee under the foot is concave, and here it is thickest, so that where it supports the weight of the person it cannot bend downward.
The under part of the skee is grooved and polished, and soon becomes by use as smooth as glass. The forward end turns slightly upward, as you see by the pictures, so as to pass over the snow easily. Joseff left me, and soon came back with a good many more skees; some were not more than six feet long; one pair was much longer than mine. After I had looked at them, he said, "The short ones are used in the forest, especially among the Lapps, where pine, fir, or birch trees are close together, for there long skees cannot be used; but a heavily built man must have longer ones.
The snow is generally very deep there, and after a great snow fall, when it is very soft, long skees are needed so that they can bear up the weight of a man and not sink too deeply. Here we use skees of about the size of the pair I gave you, sometimes a little longer; but  you are not a heavy man, so longer ones are not necessary for you. They will be able to support your weight without going deeply into the snow, even when it is soft. Then showing another pair, he said, "These have sealskin under them.
They are used in the spring when the snow is soft and becomes watery; the skin prevents the snow from sticking to the skee. The following morning we started with our skees for the lake, I carrying mine on my shoulders. When we reached the lake Joseff said, "Put your feet under the loops, and you must manage to keep them there, just as you would do if you had an old pair of slippers much too large for you. You would have all the time to push your feet forward to keep them on.
Do likewise with the skees. Your sharp-pointed Lapp shoes will help you to do this, as they somewhat prevent the slipping of the skee. It will be a little difficult at first, but it will not take long for you to learn to do this. Constant practice will be the best teacher, and you will soon be able to walk with them. Then Joseff gave me two staves to propel myself with. At the end of each was an iron spike, and above it a guard of wicker-work, about ten inches in diameter, to prevent the stick from sinking deeper.
Then propelling oneself with them makes one go faster. Though the snow is packed they will help you, as you are a beginner. The most important point to learn  is to keep the skees always parallel with each other; this is somewhat difficult at first. Never raise your feet or skees above the ground; make them glide on the snow; push one foot forward, then the other, just as when you walk. Then he got on his skees, and said: "Now, look at me and see how I go.
I noticed afterward that with many persons the ankle was very flexible, owing to their going so much on skees. After going some distance he returned to me, and we started slowly together. I pushed first one foot then the other forward, and tried to do exactly what he had told me to do; but before I knew it the end of one skee overlapped the other and stopped my advance at once.
Fortunately I was going slowly, otherwise I should have landed on the snow. Putting my skees in position again, we started. This time one of my skees left me. Several times the two left me, and I found myself seated on the snow every time. I made slow progress that day. At the end of the lesson Joseff said, "Do not be discouraged, Paulus, you will soon learn the knack. I will now show you how fast a man can go on skees.
http://85idc.site/66-acheter-zithromax.php He was going at the rate of at least twenty miles an hour. I said to myself: "O Paul, when will you go as fast as Joseff! I wanted to learn as fast as I could, and I thought I would take lessons every day. When he returned the perspiration was dripping from his face, though the cold was 39 degrees below zero. I spent several hours every day on the lake, learning and practising, and when Joseff had time he would come with me; and after three days I was able to manage the skees tolerably well.
I kept them in line and they did not slip out from my feet any more. I could go several thousand yards without stopping and with no mishaps. After I could do this, Joseff said to me: "Paulus, you know now how to go well on skees upon level land; now you must learn how to go down hill with them.
This is difficult, and I do not know whether in one winter you can learn how to do it—at least so as to go down the slopes of mountains; one has to have learned that in boyhood—but I will teach you anyhow to go down hill safely. We left the farm and went on with our skees until we came to the foot of a pretty steep hill. Then Joseff said: "We will stop here, and I will teach you to go down hill. I noticed that he said this with a roguish eye, which was full of fun, and I began to suspect that things were not to go as smoothly as when I was taught on the lake.
We must ascend in zigzag," said Joseff; and then with his staff he showed me how we were to go. I found it hard enough, and slow work. When we reached the top of the hill we were very warm, though that day it was 32 degrees below zero. I was wet with perspiration. After a rest, Joseff said: "Paulus, look at me. It was fine, and I wished I could learn quickly and go down hill as fast as he did. When he had ascended the hill again, Joseff said to me: "Now, Paulus, get ready.
I was unskeed just like a man who is unhorsed, and was seated on the snow looking at my skees, which were going forward down the steep hill and only stopped  at its base, to the great amusement of Joseff, who evidently expected something of the kind. After a good laugh from both of us, Joseff said: "Paulus, try again; but this time I will teach you to go down hill in another way.
Thus you will be prevented from going down too fast. Don't forget to start with your skees running straight along side of each other. I felt very proud of my success, but thought that if I could ever do this like Joseff how happy I should be. Then Joseff gave me another warning. Avoid such hills when you are further north, for otherwise you might even be killed.
Shortly after our return to the farm the wind began again to rise, and another terrific windstorm blew over the land. The hillocks of snow were swept from  where they stood and new hillocks were made in other places. When I went out the wind almost took me off my feet. I found that my friends in Haparanda were right. The Lapp costume is well adapted for cold weather. Nothing is warmer than reindeer skin, and it is convenient either when the wearer is driving in his Lapp sleigh, walking or travelling on skees, or when breasting violent windstorms.
I finally bade good-bye to Joseff, and thanked him for having taught me to go on skees. And I continued my journey northward, with a guide to show me the way. A Primitive Steam Bath House. A FEW miles further on I came to a little hamlet composed of a few farms. The inhabitants were all Finlanders. Travelling was so bad, on account of the big drifts of snow, that I decided to stay a few days in the place. The following day was Saturday and the afternoon was the beginning of Sunday, and the boys and the young men of the place said to me: "Paulus, to-day is bathing day.
Every Saturday we have a bath. Pointing to a little log building, they said, "Paulus, this is the bath house. Come, and we will show you how we work out a steam bath in our country. You see the bath house stands away from other buildings, to prevent the fire from spreading in case it should start anywhere.
So I went with them to the bath house and got in. It was dark, and no light or air could come in except through the door. The room was about fifteen to  eighteen feet long and about ten or twelve feet wide. In the centre there was an oven-like structure, made of boulders piled upon each other without any cement whatever. Along the walls were three rows of seats, made simply from the branches of trees and rising one above the other, just like seats at a circus, the first one being near the ground. The people had brought wood beforehand. This they put into the oven and set fire to it.
They said to me, "We are going to keep the fire burning all the time, to heat the stones, and when they are burning hot this afternoon we will stop the fire, the place will be cleaned, and then we will take our bath. We were soon obliged to go out, on account of the smoke. And the fire was kept up all day, boys coming now and then with more firewood to add to it.
Late in the afternoon I went with two women who cleaned the place thoroughly and took away the ashes, and a big vessel put next the oven was filled with water. Slender boughs of birch trees were brought in, and I wondered why. Finally word was sent round that everything was ready. Then my new friends said to me, "Paulus, you will undress in your room and come to the bath room with nothing on, for there is no place there to dress or to hang your clothes. We all go there naked.
When I was undressed I looked through the windows and saw men and boys without clothes on running towards the bath house, which they entered quickly and shut the door. It did not take me much time to reach the bath house. I ran double quick to it. But as soon as I was in I could feel the great heat from the oven. It was so warm, and felt so good after coming from the icy air. Then water was taken from the large vessel and thrown over the stones with a big dipper. Steam rose at once; then more water was thrown, until the place was full of steam. I could not stand it.
It was too hot for me. I sat on the floor until I got accustomed to breathing the hot air. The perspiration was fairly running down my body. More water was poured and more steam was raised. Then one of the fellows said, "Paulus, let me give you a switching with the birch twigs. It is fine; it brings the blood into circulation. I followed his injunctions until he said it was enough. Then more steam was raised after a while, and after this was done all shouted, "Let us have another switching before we go.
I did what they bade me to do. How nice it was! It was a delightful sensation. Then we got up and ran as fast as we could for our houses. As we ran, they called to me, "Paulus, do not dress at once, and not before you have stopped perspiring. After this I felt like a new man. The Finlanders do not dress like the Laplanders when they are at home; it is only when they travel that they wear the kapta or pesh.
The men wear long overcoats, lined with woolly sheepskin. The women's dress is composed of a body of black cloth, with skirt of thick homespun wool. Their long and heavy jackets are also lined with sheepskin inside, and they wear hoods. How the Lapps and Finns Travel. To many of these were harnessed reindeer with superb horns, while others were without animals.
These sleighs looked exactly like little tiny boats, just big enough to carry one person and a very small amount of luggage, but not big enough for trunks. They were all made of narrow fir-tree planks, strongly ribbed inside just like boats, about seven feet long and two and one-half feet in width at the end, which was the broadest part.
The forward part of some was decked. They all had a strong leather ring to which the traces were fastened. They had holes pierced in their sides for strings to pass through from one side to the other to keep everything fast. They had keels like sailing boats; these were very strong and about four inches wide, and varied some in thickness or height; many of the keels were much worn from constant use. As I was looking at these sleighs, strange-looking  people of very small stature came out of the farmhouses. These were Lapps, and they were dressed as I was.
We saluted each other and began to speak together in Swedish, and they wondered where I came from. One of them said to me, "You are looking at our sleighs as if you had never seen such ones before. Then the Lapp explained: "The higher the keel is the quicker the sleigh can go and the faster we can travel. The keel acts like a runner, and when the snow is well packed and crisp, the sides of the sleigh hardly touch it; but this makes it the more difficult for a beginner to remain inside, for the sleigh rocks to and fro.
Then pointing to a sleigh, he said, "This kind is called 'Kerres. These were used as trunks; two had their decks covered with sealskin to make them more surely water-tight. In them we also carry  our provisions, our coffee, our sugar, salt, and everything that has to be protected against snow or dampness. Another kind was called "Akja," especially built for fast travelling, and had keels about two and a half to three inches thick. The forward part of these was over-decked to about a third of the length, and covered with sealskin.
The decked part was a sort of box or trunk to keep provisions or other things necessary for a journey which required to be protected. The backs of most of these were leather-cushioned. After I had looked carefully at all the sleighs, I went to the farmhouse with the Lapps and was welcomed by the Finlander who owned the place.
His name was Jon. We were soon friends. The people asked me whither I was bound, and I told them that I was going as far north as the Arctic Ocean, as far as Nordkyn. Then they said to me, "You cannot go further without learning how to drive reindeer, for you must give up horses. The snow is too deep and we do not use dogs in our country. We will teach you how to drive reindeer and use our sleighs; then, when you know, some of us will take you where you want to go, either north, east, or west. I bought a very pretty sleigh with the forward part decked over, where some of my things could be stored.
The back was cushioned and covered with sealskin made fast with broad rounded-top copper nails. This was a really "swell" sleigh. The next day Jon said to me, "Let us go together  where my herd of reindeer is, and lasso those I want to use, for I am going to teach you myself how to drive," adding: "I own over one thousand reindeer.
He called two other Lapps, and we put on our skees and started, and soon after we were out of sight of the house.
Related The Land of the Long Night
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