The term includes the painting of dead animals, especially game. Live ones are considered animal art , although in practice they were often painted from dead models. Because of the use of plants and animals as a subject, the still-life category also shares commonalities with zoological and especially botanical illustration. However, with visual or fine art, the work is not intended merely to illustrate the subject correctly. Still life occupied the lowest rung of the hierarchy of genres , but has been extremely popular with buyers. As well as the independent still-life subject, still-life painting encompasses other types of painting with prominent still-life elements, usually symbolic, and "images that rely on a multitude of still-life elements ostensibly to reproduce a 'slice of life ' ".
Still-life paintings often adorn the interior of ancient Egyptian tombs. It was believed that food objects and other items depicted there would, in the afterlife, become real and available for use by the deceased. Ancient Greek vase paintings also demonstrate great skill in depicting everyday objects and animals. Peiraikos is mentioned by Pliny the Elder as a panel painter of "low" subjects, such as survive in mosaic versions and provincial wall-paintings at Pompeii : "barbers' shops, cobblers' stalls, asses, eatables and similar subjects". Similar still life, more simply decorative in intent, but with realistic perspective, have also been found in the Roman wall paintings and floor mosaics unearthed at Pompeii , Herculaneum and the Villa Boscoreale , including the later familiar motif of a glass bowl of fruit.
Decorative mosaics termed "emblema", found in the homes of rich Romans, demonstrated the range of food enjoyed by the upper classes, and also functioned as signs of hospitality and as celebrations of the seasons and of life. By the 16th century, food and flowers would again appear as symbols of the seasons and of the five senses. Also starting in Roman times is the tradition of the use of the skull in paintings as a symbol of mortality and earthly remains, often with the accompanying phrase Omnia mors aequat Death makes all equal. He singled out Peiraikos , "whose artistry is surpassed by only a very few He painted barbershops and shoemakers' stalls, donkeys, vegetables, and such, and for that reason came to be called the 'painter of vulgar subjects'; yet these works are altogether delightful, and they were sold at higher prices than the greatest [paintings] of many other artists.
By , starting with Giotto and his pupils, still-life painting was revived in the form of fictional niches on religious wall paintings which depicted everyday objects. This was particularly true in the work of Northern European artists, whose fascination with highly detailed optical realism and symbolism led them to lavish great attention on their paintings' overall message. In the late Middle Ages, still-life elements, mostly flowers but also animals and sometimes inanimate objects, were painted with increasing realism in the borders of illuminated manuscripts , developing models and technical advances that were used by painters of larger images.
There was considerable overlap between the artists making miniatures for manuscripts and those painting panels, especially in Early Netherlandish painting. The Hours of Catherine of Cleves , probably made in Utrecht around , is one of the outstanding examples of this trend, with borders featuring an extraordinary range of objects, including coins and fishing-nets, chosen to complement the text or main image at that particular point. Flemish workshops later in the century took the naturalism of border elements even further.
Gothic millefleur tapestries are another example of the general increasing interest in accurate depictions of plants and animals. The set of The Lady and the Unicorn is the best-known example, designed in Paris around and then woven in Flanders. The development of oil painting technique by Jan van Eyck and other Northern European artists made it possible to paint everyday objects in this hyper-realistic fashion, owing to the slow drying, mixing, and layering qualities of oil colours.
Petrus Christus ' portrait of a bride and groom visiting a goldsmith is a typical example of a transitional still life depicting both religious and secular content. Though mostly allegorical in message, the figures of the couple are realistic and the objects shown coins, vessels, etc. Eligius and the objects heavily symbolic.
Another similar type of painting is the family portrait combining figures with a well-set table of food, which symbolizes both the piety of the human subjects and their thanks for God's abundance. Various vessels in the border of an illuminated book of hours for Engelbert of Nassau , Flemish artist, s. Detail of one of The Lady and the Unicorn millefleur tapestries , c. Jacopo de' Barbari , Still-Life with Partridge and Gauntlets , a very early independent still life, perhaps the back or cover for a portrait. Though most still lifes after were relatively small paintings, a crucial stage in the development of the genre was the tradition, mostly centred on Antwerp , of the "monumental still life", which were large paintings that included great spreads of still-life material with figures and often animals.
Another example is "The Butcher Shop" by Aertsen's nephew Joachim Beuckelaer , with its realistic depiction of raw meats dominating the foreground, while a background scene conveys the dangers of drunkenness and lechery. The type of very large kitchen or market scene developed by Pieter Aertsen and his nephew Joachim Beuckelaer typically depicts an abundance of food with a kitchenware still life and burly Flemish kitchen-maids. A small religious scene can often be made out in the distance, or a theme such as the Four Seasons is added to elevate the subject.
This sort of large-scale still life continued to develop in Flemish painting after the separation of the North and South, but is rare in Dutch painting, although other works in this tradition anticipate the " merry company " type of genre painting. Gradually, religious content diminished in size and placement in this type of painting, though moral lessons continued as sub-contexts.
The tradition continued into the next century, with several works by Rubens , who mostly sub-contracted the still-life and animal elements to specialist masters such as Frans Snyders and his pupil Jan Fyt. By the second half of the 16th century, the autonomous still life evolved.
It also prompted the beginning of scientific illustration and the classification of specimens. Natural objects began to be appreciated as individual objects of study apart from any religious or mythological associations. The early science of herbal remedies began at this time as well, which was a practical extension of this new knowledge. In addition, wealthy patrons began to underwrite the collection of animal and mineral specimens, creating extensive cabinets of curiosities. These specimens served as models for painters who sought realism and novelty. Shells, insects, exotic fruits and flowers began to be collected and traded, and new plants such as the tulip imported to Europe from Turkey , were celebrated in still-life paintings.
The horticultural explosion was of widespread interest in Europe and artist capitalized on that to produce thousands of still-life paintings. Some regions and courts had particular interests. The depiction of citrus, for example, was a particular passion of the Medici court in Florence, Italy. Annibale Carracci — , Butcher's Shop Prominent Academicians of the early 17th century, such as Andrea Sacchi , felt that genre and still-life painting did not carry the "gravitas" merited for painting to be considered great. He who produces perfect landscapes is above another who only produces fruit, flowers or seafood.
He who paints living animals is more estimable than those who only represent dead things without movement, and as man is the most perfect work of God on the earth, it is also certain that he who becomes an imitator of God in representing human figures, is much more excellent than all the others Still life developed as a separate category in the Low Countries in the last quarter of the 16th century. When the illuminated manuscript was displaced by the printed book, the same skills were later deployed in scientific botanical illustration; the Low Countries led Europe in both botany and its depiction in art.
The Flemish artist Joris Hoefnagel — made watercolour and gouache paintings of flowers and other still-life subjects for the Emperor Rudolf II , and there were many engraved illustrations for books often then hand-coloured , such as Hans Collaert 's Florilegium , published by Plantin in Around flower paintings in oils became something of a craze; Karel van Mander painted some works himself, and records that other Northern Mannerist artists such as Cornelis van Haarlem also did so.
No surviving flower-pieces by them are known, but many survive by the leading specialists, Jan Brueghel the Elder and Ambrosius Bosschaert , both active in the Southern Netherlands.
Still life - Wikipedia
While artists in the North found limited opportunity to produce the religious iconography which had long been their staple—images of religious subjects were forbidden in the Dutch Reformed Protestant Church —the continuing Northern tradition of detailed realism and hidden symbols appealed to the growing Dutch middle classes, who were replacing Church and State as the principal patrons of art in the Netherlands. Added to this was the Dutch mania for horticulture, particularly the tulip. These two views of flowers—as aesthetic objects and as religious symbols— merged to create a very strong market for this type of still life.
The symbolism of flowers had evolved since early Christian days. The most common flowers and their symbolic meanings include: rose Virgin Mary, transience, Venus, love ; lily Virgin Mary, virginity, female breast, purity of mind or justice ; tulip showiness, nobility ; sunflower faithfulness, divine love, devotion ; violet modesty, reserve, humility ; columbine melancholy ; poppy power, sleep, death. As for insects, the butterfly represents transformation and resurrection while the dragonfly symbolizes transience and the ant hard work and attention to the harvest.
In the Catholic Southern Netherlands the genre of garland paintings was developed. Around —, Antwerp artists Jan Brueghel the Elder and Hendrick van Balen started creating these pictures which consist of an image usually devotional which is encircled by a lush still life wreath. The paintings were collaborations between two specialists: a still life and a figure painter.
Daniel Seghers developed the genre further. Originally serving a devotional function, garland paintings became extremely popular and were widely used as decoration of homes. A special genre of still life was the so-called pronkstilleven Dutch for 'ostentatious still life'. This style of ornate still-life painting was developed in the s in Antwerp by Flemish artists such as Frans Snyders and Adriaen van Utrecht. They painted still lifes that emphasized abundance by depicting a diversity of objects, fruits, flowers and dead game, often together with living people and animals.
The style was soon adopted by artists from the Dutch Republic. Especially popular in this period were vanitas paintings, in which sumptuous arrangements of fruit and flowers, books, statuettes, vases, coins, jewelry, paintings, musical and scientific instruments, military insignia, fine silver and crystal, were accompanied by symbolic reminders of life's impermanence. Additionally, a skull, an hourglass or pocket watch, a candle burning down or a book with pages turning, would serve as a moralizing message on the ephemerality of sensory pleasures.
Often some of the fruits and flowers themselves would be shown starting to spoil or fade to emphasize the same point. Cornelis Norbertus Gysbrechts c. Jan Philip van Thielen — , Vase of Flowers c. Maria van Oosterwijk , Vanitas-Still Life Jan Jansz. Lubin Baugin c. Another type of still life, known as ontbijtjes or "breakfast paintings", represent both a literal presentation of delicacies that the upper class might enjoy and a religious reminder to avoid gluttony. The Netherlandish production of still lifes was enormous, and they were very widely exported, especially to northern Europe; Britain hardly produced any itself.
German still life followed closely the Dutch models; Georg Flegel was a pioneer in pure still life without figures and created the compositional innovation of placing detailed objects in cabinets, cupboards, and display cases, and producing simultaneous multiple views. Ambrosius Bosschaert — , Still-Life of Flowers Pieter Claesz c. Jan Davidsz. Peter Binoit , , Skokloster Castle. Starting in the Baroque period, such paintings became popular in Spain in the second quarter of the 17th century. The tradition of still-life painting appears to have started and was far more popular in the contemporary Low Countries , today Belgium and Netherlands then Flemish and Dutch artists , than it ever was in southern Europe.
In Spain there were much fewer patrons for this sort of thing, but a type of breakfast piece did become popular, featuring a few objects of food and tableware laid on a table. Still-life painting in Spain, also called bodegones , was austere. It differed from Dutch still life, which often contained rich banquets surrounded by ornate and luxurious items of fabric or glass.
The game in Spanish paintings is often plain dead animals still waiting to be skinned. The fruits and vegetables are uncooked. The backgrounds are bleak or plain wood geometric blocks, often creating a surrealist air. Even while both Dutch and Spanish still life often had an embedded moral purpose, the austerity, which some find akin to the bleakness of some of the Spanish plateaus, appears to reject the sensual pleasures, plenitude, and luxury of Dutch still-life paintings.
Even though Italian still-life painting in Italian referred to as natura morta , "dead nature" was gaining in popularity, it remained historically less respected than the "grand manner" painting of historical, religious, and mythic subjects. On the other hand, successful Italian still-life artists found ample patronage in their day. Many leading Italian artists in other genre, also produced some still-life paintings.
In particular, Caravaggio applied his influential form of naturalism to still life. It can be as realistic as a photograph or as abstract as swathes of color. Art can be used to invoke spirits or exorcize demons. I am driven to speak with my hands, to translate my visions into a form that bridges all language barriers. My visions come from my perception of the world around me, dreams and faint remembrances of lifetimes lost in the past.
I am a storyteller at heart and my quilts are my stories. I was born and raised on the Monterey Peninsula in central California, a beautiful area that served as an inspiration to set me onto a creative path for life. From a very early age I showed a keen interest in art, starting with drawing and painting and exploring different mediums for my self-expression. In the early 70's, I turned my attention to fiber and fabrics with a focus on quilting and embroidery. For the last 40 years or so, fiber and quilting has been my primary focus and passion.
In , we moved to the Pacific Northwest. I began teaching fiber and quilting classes in Over the years, my work has won awards at local, regional and national shows and the recognition has served me well in promoting myself as a teacher. This year, I became a fabric designer for Northcott Fabrics and my first line comes out in May of In addition to art and quilting, I have a passion for gourmet cooking, books the only place I can get into worse trouble than a fabric store , films and music.
Susan Lenart Kazmer is an artist, silversmith and designer of 23 years. After Art school, I realized that I needed personal experience from the world to be able to put forth and create a significant and relevant body of work. At my core, My work is based on travel and exploring other cultures. While traveling, I studied and observed unusual practices of cultures around the world, including my own. Through time, I obtained a deep understanding of Talismans and relics and found this subject relevant in all cultures.
I discovered hidden meaning behind most artifacts and ancient adornment through symbolisms, embedded prayers and geometric shape. Now, I create my own version of powerful Talismans, Symbolism and Relics expressed through my work and can be worn for qualities embedded such as,protection, strength, abundance and love. I also did ethnographic repair in the Chicago area on West African beadwork and adornment. East Indian Naga jewelry and Thailand components and jewelry. My job was to repair or rebuild a historical piece of jewelry or fiber. I had the opportunity to witness up close the construction of ancient pieces, how pieces were built and what would last through time as a connections as well as witnessing Innovative use of materials and their significant meanings.
Through a lot of travel and exploration I built my vocabulary of my own symbolism and Talismans through jewelry and adornment for the sake of building. Early on, I began a jewelry commercial company in the fashion field and find I am recently going back to my roots. I am landing back in the fashion field where my work won an award during Milan fashion week Artistar event with Italian Vogue accessories.
My work is considered innovative and expressive. I build in culture, history and beauty into adornment. Other interests include education where I wrote two books for the jewelry industry both Amazon best sellers. Through the years and educationally, I have had the honor of teaching many different types of people including, women, men, children, artists, laymen and professionals.
I consider myself a teacher of the creative process. My objective for teaching is to open one up to the creative process and push one beyond one's normal expectations. This in turn will open up to new ideas infinite possibilities and allow one the freedom to create and explore in a safe space.
If you allow this process in my classroom, you will go home fresh and full of ideas to expand your work, whether it be accounting or jewelry. Leighanna Light is an art instructor, thingmaker, bookmaker and figurative assemblage artist. Her background is in fine arts and photography, and she has been teaching art workshops for the past 15 years.
Laurie Longberry is a mixed media artist and the owner of Berry Farm Studios. She loves the American West and was raised in Wyoming and Colorado. She has enjoyed working in a creative field of one type or another since the age of She lives with her amazing husband of 28 years; together they have 4 equally amazing children in their own right. After her kiddos were all in school, Laurie had a desire to go back to school herself to study art. A teaching job with Monart Drawing and Art Studio shortly followed and it ticked all the boxes of her dream job.
She has been teaching children, teens and adults on a weekly basis for the last 9 years. In addition to teaching Laurie was a founding member of Textiles West and cherishes the friendships and the encouragement she has found there. Laurie is currently delving into the wonderful world of illustrating books, teaching almost daily and looking forward to grandbaby 2! Jennifer J MacLean brings her humor, energy and somewhat irreverent insights to every class. She believes in setting the classroom stage with fun, maybe some disco, and encouragement for every student.
Her mixed media paintings and printmaking incorporate bold color decisions and express a physicality with her energetic mark making.
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She has also designed and created jewelry for 20 years. Her paintings have been in several local and national art exhibitions, including New York, Chicago, and Seattle. She is also trained in the Demartini Coaching Method. Trish McKinney, is a national and international award winning artist who loves to tell a story through her paintings. Pay attention. Be astonished.
Tell about it. Trish loves to inspire students to do these 3 things. Laurie Mika is an artist, author and instructor. Her unique approach combines handmade polymer clay tiles with beads, jewelry pieces, charms, glass tile and found objects. She feels very fortunate to be able to combine her love of travel and passion for art through teaching at art retreats around the world. Closer to home, in southern California, she participates in juried exhibitions and has her work in galleries and private collections.
Carol Nelson is a Colorado contemporary mixed media painter, juror and art instructor. She has been teaching workshops around the United States for over 10 years.
Her work has evolved over the years from representational to more abstract in style. Her abstract work is full of vibrant color and unusual textures. She often uses metals, metal foils, and metal leaf in her work.
Her process involves applying layers of color and texture to create an intricate and complex statement. In addition to private instruction in her Colorado studio, Carol teaches many workshops annually around the United States. Her life journey gives Jacqueline Newbold a never-ending source of inspiration to represent gems of the world in her color-filled paintings. Her watercolor journal has become a visual diary and constant companion everywhere she travels. Using a warm and playful color palette, Jacqueline enjoys capturing a moment in time by painting the dappled sunlight on a field of lavender, or the brilliance of a tropical beach.
She introduces color in the shadows and sun-drenched areas, which creates a luminous glow in her paintings. Primarily a watercolor artist, she uses her watercolor journal as a springboard for exploring creative ways to incorporate mixed media into her art and providing the bases for her larger creations. She teaches watercolor workshops locally, nationally as well as leading painting workshops in France and Italy.
She has several articles published in the mixed-media magazine, Cloth-Paper-Scissors about creating art while on your journey. Jacqueline has partnered with Daniel Smith Art Supplies to create a watercolor traveling kit. Her self-published book, Watercolor Journeys is a helpful guide for beginning to advanced watercolor enthusiasts and her workshop DVD with Interweave has just been released: Art Journals On-The-Go: How to pack, prep, paint, and more. Website: www. Ever visited a funhouse? You creep through, cau-tious, curious and excited, all at the same time, because something whimsical, odd or mischievous could surprise you, but you enjoy it nonetheless!
Mixed Media Funhouse is the art studio of Kristen Penrod. She creates one-of-kind assemblages that can be described as somewhere be-tween whimsical and peculiar. Her favorite medium is her imagination. She practices stretching her imagination with the selection of random vintage objects that evolve into body parts, enclosures, and amusing characters with a back-ground and story with deeper meaning.
Recently she has especially enjoyed creating fictional charac-ters with non-fictional stories to them. Upon entering the funhouse, Kristen turns on her music, dons her goggles and her imagination ignites! She swings into action, deconstructing toys after she plays with them of course! She lives in beautiful Colorado, where Mother Nature inspires her on a daily basis. She has always loved art in its many various forms. Over the years she has dabbled in many types and styles of art. She owns Blue Twig Studio, a mixed media art supply shop and teaching studio. She believes in the power of art and creativity to change a life.
Which means our families will be happier, and our communities will be happier, and thus the world will be a better place to live in. Lisa Renner is a mixed-media artist who enjoys making art on many levels. Her interests include bookmaking, encaustic, jewelry and working with polymer clay, particularly creating figurative sculpture.
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She teaches workshops nationally and enjoys sharing her techniques and creations with others. Jesse Reno is a self-taught mixed media painter.
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He has been drawing since he could hold a pencil, and painting and exhibiting his works since Jesse has amassed over paintings in the last 12 years, and has exhibited his work extensively across the US and Canada as well as France and Mexico. Jesse's work has been covered in various art publications including Juxtapoz, Artnews, Artension, dpi and Somerset Studio just to name a few.
One of his largest works can be seen in Winnipeg, Canada where he was commissioned by the Province of Manitoba to create a 25 x 40 ft mural as a reminder to the cultural importance of the Native American people in the region. LeBrie Rich is an artist and educator living in Portland, Oregon.
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She is the proprietress of PenFelt, a line of felted accessories and objects that are available in select craft galleries nationally. LeBrie has been teaching feltmaking for 10 years and loves to introduce people the miraculous and fun process of transforming raw wool into felt! Kristin has been quilting since when she opened Fiber on a Whim with her mother Janelle.
Spent bullets, shredded currency, egg shells, tea bags, leaf skeletons, vintage postage, subtle messages and handmade papers; these are just some of the materials you'll find when you look closely at Susan Rossiter's abstract paintings. Susan's influence and inspiration is constantly evolving. Each year she chooses an area or direction of focus. Recently she has become enamored with Mid Century Modern colors and patterns. Susan was a Fine Art major at Millersville University and continues to budget time and money each year to enhance her creative education.
She feels there is always something new to learn and areas to grow artistically. As a result, Susan has extended experience in printmaking, fine art metals, design, fiber arts, sculpture, assemblage and encaustics. She enjoys the excitement of new processes and materials and It's fascinating to see how she incorporates all of these areas back into her specialization; Mixed Media Painting. Recent accomplishments include five large paintings commissioned by Nationwide Insurance and forty small works in progress for a collaboration between the Smithsonian and Art-O-Mat.
I love repetition, detail, color and pattern. My favorite place is in the classroom with happy fun people and music. It's where I am most at home. Aside from painting I like to laugh, eat clean, kayak, swim, bike and run with John- the most wonderful person in the world. Collage is a wonderful way to wake up the sleeping artist within. Collages are unique individual expressions, just like the artists are. I am exploring a range of subjects without a political agenda, welcoming the technical challenge of making realistic renderings from recycled materials.
I enjoy making something attractive from discards, appropriating images and putting them together in intriguing ways. Like any artist, I am especially thrilled when my work calls to a viewer to come closer and spend some time engaged in the piece. While my pictorial collages are best viewed from a distance, a close up inspection can reveal a very different piece of art.
Among them are fiber arts, book binding, beading, painting and lots of experimenting. It is thru all that experimenting that ideas are constantly being born. Anni and her husband live in the Chicago suburbs.forum2.quizizz.com/map184.php
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They have two grown children. Nature and conservation play a huge role in her daily life and is often depicted in her art work. Lorri magically transforms undyed silk fabrics, ribbons, and garments into fabulous colors using shibori, resist, vat dye and dye printing techniques. She is a self taught weaver, dyer, and clothing designer whose art has shown in numerous publications and juried shows. Eric M. Scott is one half of the Journal Fodder Junkies, and he is dedicated to helping people discover their artistic potential and cultivate their creativity.
He is a mixed media artist, an educator, and an author, and he provides workshops, presentations, and seminars across North America on the visual journal and mixed media art. Helen Shafer Garcia is a painter, mixed media artist and award winning illustrator. Her whimsical style shows a love for living creatively with a studio filled to the brim with found objects! Alice Sorensen is a textile loving fiber artist. She has done a little of almost everything starting as a small child. She worked various jobs including owning a yarn shop and working for a private liberal arts university as an admistrator.
She is mainly self taught although she eagerly takes classes, workshops and buys lots of books. Now retired she can indulge in working on stitching, sewing, knitting and textile oriented projects. Alice lives in Keizer, Oregon with her husband and two small dogs, happily hanging out in her sewing annex.
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If not for the step-by-step process of decorative painting, she would not have been introduced to the world of painting. In , Carol started painting primarily in transparent watercolor and her teaching career was launched. Carol is an Ambassador for Mission Gold Watercolor by Mijello and paints primarily with watercolor accented with multimedia. Carol shares her step-by-step approach to painting with students of all levels. All projects include written instructions, a line drawing and a color photo. Drawing ability is not necessary, allowing the student to focus on the mechanics of painting.
Her use of color and textures invite you into her joyful paintings. Each lesson is designed to introduce the student to a new technique or way of looking at art. No two paintings are alike, and that is a good thing! Like many of us, Carol works full time and therefore, takes her painting time seriously and perhaps has a greater appreciation for time spent painting.
Painting is her joy and often times, her therapy. Carol is a popular instructor at decorative painting conventions sharing her joy of painting with watercolors and mixed media to over students throughout the North America each year. Marilyn loves sharing fun and amazing bookbinding techniques she developed to showcase an array of handmade, decorative and evocative vintage papers and images from her extensive collection.
She is also an award winning poet and memoirist who loves to make visual journals about her life and activities including travel and dream journals, art projects and ideas. Her artist books are in Special Collection libraries, private collections and in public galleries like the Minnesota Center for the Book. Visit: marilynstablein. Jacqueline Sullivan is a mixed media artist and calligrapher. She has served on the faculty of several International Calligraphy Conferences. For several years she has taught classes at art retreats, conferences and colleges in the United States and Canada.
Jill Timm is a full time book artist focusing on small editions of hand crafted books. She often uses interesting structures and non-typical materials to convey the essence of the place or subject. A varied background in graphic design, photography, teaching, marketing, and business, have all come together in her press, Mystical Places Press located In Central Washington.
Jill has earned grants, awards and professional achievements for her work in both fine arts graphics, photography, graphic design, and art direction. She has work in many, corporate, university, public and private collections across the United States and Canada. Jill also give talks and workshops on her frequent travels to visit collectors and research new books. She has taught many high school, college and career training classes in the arts.
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