The dictionary includes not only traditional grammatical terms but also numerous terms from various theoretical frameworks that are relevant to English grammar.
Table of contents
When a term has different uses in different frameworks, these are also clearly indicated. The dictionary is clearly laid out with visual aids for ease of reading, including the following among others: headwords are in bold; a line space separates each entry from the next; all cross-referenced terms are clearly marked with an asterisk. All of these traits make this a useful tool for people interested in English grammar. The book is divided into six parts, the first giving an introduction to the concepts and data used in the book and the remaining five broadly ordered chronologically with each focusing on particular borrowing situations: Part II covers very early borrowings in Continental Germanic and pre-Old English; Part III examines Latin loanwords in proto- Old English; Part IV focuses on Scandinavian influence; Part V is dedicated to French and Latin borrowings in Middle English; and Part VI looks at loanwords after Not only does the book provide information on the influx of vocabulary items in the history of English, it also offers quite detailed discussion of the techniques and methodology employed in research on loanwords: determining, on the basis of phonological changes, when a borrowing entered the language and the issues involved in deciding whether to consider particular instances of a word as a borrowing or not; for example, Latin borrowings in Old English that always maintain Latin morphology versus those that alternate between Latin and Old English morphology.
Though perhaps a bit too technical to maintain the attention of a general audience, the book is quite accessible to non-linguists while still being an invaluable resource for experienced researchers by providing a framework through which one can explore borrowing in any language. See also Section 5 below. Does Spelling Matter? His book starts by discussing the evolution of writing systems in general and the complex debate surrounding the relationship between letters and sounds from the Middle Ages up to the present day and beyond.
The subsequent chapters give a chronological sketch of English spelling at its various stages and the various issues and factors that played a role in each stage. Despite its challenges, Horobin argues that English spelling serves not only as a testament to the rich history of the language but also as a way to aid in reading comprehension, which is a side of the argument that typically receives less attention from spelling reformers. The book is very accessible to non-linguists: its use of specialized terminology is minimal, and brief definitions are provided of the terms that are introduced.
The year has once more seen the publication of several studies related to the history of English linguistics. Selected case studies, notably those of spelling and certain types of vocabulary, reveal that usage, i. Particular attention is paid to the lower social classes, i. Another volume published in that tries to remedy this lack of research on the nineteenth century is Late Modern English Syntax , edited by Marianne Hundt. The corpus study reveals rapid change, i. In fact, it was possible to determine that the descriptions of British and American grammar writers developed differently over time.
Corpus studies on BrE have revealed that the progressive passive rises rapidly in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A comparison with North American corpus data shows a different development, namely a lagging behind, which particularly concerns the twentieth century. It can be observed in both varieties of English that the progressive passive is highly text-type sensitive, with newspapers favouring the linguistic features.
A close study of prescriptive comments on the progressive passive in grammar books reveals that the use of the linguistic feature, and thereby also its users, was strongly criticized in grammars. Reasons for this particularly negative evaluation of the progressive passive may be its perceived complexity, its rarity overall, and its text-type sensitivity. As in the previously discussed paper by Anderwald, text-type sensitivity is considered the determining factor for the occurrence of the progressive passive in both BrE and AmE.
Considering the potential effect of prescriptivism, in AmE a sharp decline of the progressive passive can be observed in the s, notably in newspaper language; this development coincides with the publication of William Strunk and E. This may be taken as an indication that prescriptivism has had an influence in this particular case. Some books are like wine—they gain quality with the passage of time.
The major revision of this work consists in the shift of focus from the description of Received Pronunciation RP to a more flexibly defined General British accent. Advocating this change, Cruttenden joins the ongoing academic discussion on the selection of a pronunciation model for teaching and justifies his choice by the fact that RP is perceived as posh, regionally limited, imposed, and outdated, and that General British, apart from being less constrained than RP, has a greater number of speakers than the old standard.
Also, the book has a completely rewritten chapter on the history of the English language. The other classic that was thoroughly reviewed and updated is the introductory handbook of phonetics by Peter Ladefoged and Keith Johnson: A Course in Phonetics. This extensively illustrated book allows a student without prior linguistic knowledge to learn about speech production, acoustics, and perception, as well as develop practical phonetic skills, including sound production and IPA transcription.
Wells is likely to satisfy the need. This distinguished scholar has selected entries from his phonetic blog and compiled a highly entertaining and, at the same time, deeply insightful and informative book which is filled with anecdotes, reflections, and observations about numerous topics related to general phonetics and the pronunciation of English.
The chapters that the entries are grouped into are devoted to such subject areas as English pronunciation, general phonetics, teaching phonetics in English as a foreign language, English intonation, the International Phonetic Alphabet and spelling, accents of English, and the phonetics of languages other than English. The book is a must for those who are fascinated by the oddities of English pronunciation. They argue that the vowel that surfaces after alveolar plosives differs consistently from schwa which is present lexically in comparable consonantal contexts.
Acoustic measurements of vowel formants showed that the affix vowel is higher and further forward than lexical schwa, yet lower and more retracted than [I]. These findings were also confirmed by real-time magnetic resonance imaging rtMRI. Moreover, the MRI analysis of articulatory postures revealed that in the speech of the examined participants there was evidence for articulatory targets in the production of the affix vowel.
These novel results compelled the authors to argue against the claim that the vocoid in the suffix is targetless when regarding articulatory gestures. Another instrumental study of English pronunciation was carried out by Marc Garellek, who set out to establish if word-initial vowels and sonorants become strengthened by means of increased vocal-fold adduction.
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Utterances, thus prepared, were read out by twelve speakers of AmE and recorded with an electro-glottograph EGG and an audio recorder. The subsequent analysis consisted in calculating the vocal-fold contact ratios for the investigated sounds as well as determining the frequencies of the first two harmonics H1 and H2 and calculating the difference between them to estimate voice quality.
The results showed that only initial prominent vowels became strengthened by an increased degree of glottal constriction, which indicates that there occurred word-initial glottalization. Pre-vocalic glottal stops appear not only in word-initial position. To accomplish this task, they recorded passages of text that contained stimuli of three types: word-internal vowel hiatuses e. The first two types of vowel sequence provide contexts for glide insertion [w] and [j] as the first vowel is non-high.
The vocoids in the test tokens were assessed with regard to voice quality creak vs. Additionally, extensive acoustic measurements were performed. The results of the experiment are surprising. Contrary to the general assumption that hiatuses are resolved in English by an intervening glide, the findings of the study revealed that the preferred strategy for hiatus resolution across word boundaries is glottal stop insertion. What is more, glide insertion was not attested as a strategy for resolving hiatuses, and in many cases, particularly within words, the hiatuses were not resolved at all.
AmE flaps appear not to be as plain as it may seem at first sight. A number of researchers published articles devoted to this group of sounds in This result seems to reflect the process of pre-fortis clipping that operates in English. As a result, the author postulates recognition of two kinds of incomplete neutralization: one that produces segments that can be identified and discriminated between and, on the other hand, incomplete neutralization that renders sounds that evade correct identification and discrimination, such as AmE flaps.
Taps and flaps display variability not only when it comes to the length of preceding vowels. They also differ in the way they are articulated. In a production experiment, Derrick and Gick find indications that particular realizations do not occur randomly; the attested productions display long-distance subphonemic planning that aims at avoiding articulatory conflict. The explanation of the phenomenon is grounded in anticipatory co-articulation and end-state comfort effect.
The author analysed a political talk show to verify if the speakers hyperarticulated new information contrasted with given data and concepts about which they expressed attitudinal stances. To reach this objective, the concepts reiterated in the recordings at least three times were classified as new or given, and evaluative or neutral. Thus classified tokens were subjected to acoustic analysis to determine if there occurs hyperarticulation in any of the categories. The results showed that the speakers hyperarticulated both stance-expressing items and new information.
Speech-rate and vowel duration proved to be the most reliable indicators of hyperarticulation in English, whereas pitch did not provide valuable insight. The issue of the phonological status of affricates in English continues to be a matter of contention. Van de Weijer maintains that the English affricates and constitute a separate natural class of sounds and should be regarded as single underlying units, rather than as phonological sequences.
To substantiate this claim, he presents an analysis of their phonotactic restrictions and patterning. The data provided is said to support the Complex Segment Approach to the representation of affricates, in which the phonological specification of the segment includes features that are in common with stops as well as fricatives at the same time.
Coetzee, who examine the strength of anterior and dorsal constrictions in the English lateral. The primary research question is whether the lexical frequency of occurrence has an effect on the constriction magnitude. To find the answer, the authors employ ultrasound imaging and acoustic analysis. Firstly, they confirm previous findings that apical and dorsal constrictions characteristic of velarized laterals are most pronounced least reduced when an alveolar consonant follows. Secondly, the reduction of alveolar constrictions was greater in high-frequency words.
Moreover, acoustic measurements of formant frequencies in the laterals reflected the degree of anterior constriction: F1 and F2 were closer together in tokens with more reduced constrictions. Only books and volume chapters will be considered in this section and the following one, covering both and This substantial work provides an overview of an extensive range of issues and topics in English morphology. The book opens with a clear definition of central terms, as well as a discussion about methods commonly used in the field. It then provides a very systematic discussion of the basic processes of word-formation: inflection, derivation, and compounding.
The book also includes a chapter about the interaction between these processes such as affix combinations, or combinations of compounding and affixes. The book ends with a chapter on issues of theory and typology of English morphology. Robert Dixon, in his Making New Words: Morphological Derivation in English , provides detailed studies of affixes ninety prefixes, suffixes in English that are productive and that change the word class of the word they attach to, i.
After an explanation of the aims of the book, and a short overview with definitions of central terms, the remaining chapters discuss all affixes in turn. The chapters are organized according to the category of the affix, starting with prefixes chapters 5 and 6. The next couple of chapters are based on the word class that is the result of the affixation process: affixes making verbs chapter 7 , adjectives chapter 8 , nouns chapter 9 , and finally adverbs chapter The final chapter before the conclusion discusses combinations of affixes in individual words.
Throughout the book, Dixon highlights many differences between affixes in meaning or use, some of them very subtle. He addresses questions such as what determines the choice between the two productive negative prefixes in- and un-. In the case of in- and un- , for instance, the answer is that is that un- was a Germanic prefix and could attach to all sorts of words, while in- is a Romance form in use from roughly , attaching only to Romance words.
Some examples are perfect verb and adjective , abstract verb and adjective , and find verb and noun. Matthews asks two main questions. The first is how much the predicative and attributive uses of adjectives The chief is tall versus The tall chief have diverged throughout the history of English. His answer to the second question is that words that are traditionally classified as adjectives do belong to the class of adjectives although he admits and discusses that there are many problems with the categorization of adjectives. At the beginning of the book, Matthews brings up many general questions with respect to how words should be categorized, pointing out problems with traditional views on word class.
For the adjectives, he provides many examples of uneven distribution: some adjectives can only be used predicatively such as afraid while others can only be used attributively such as main or utter. Matthews does not find clear evidence which points to one use being more basic than the other. Another problem for the word class of adjectives is that the words that are generally taken to be adjectives do not seem to have one function that is shared by all adjectives and which is not often also a function of words from other classes.
However, the most obvious alternative discussed by Matthews, conversion, is not a viable solution, as he discusses in detail. Quite a number of books appeared in and about CxG: both introductions, reference works and historical studies working within a CxG framework. This handbook contains twenty-seven chapters, which cover an extensive range of topics within CxG. Like all Oxford Handbooks, this volume provides an insightful discussion of current issues, as well as an introduction to some of the basic principles of this model.
Although it does not deal specifically with English, many of the discussions and explorations of topics are based on English examples. This textbook, from the series Edinburgh Textbooks on the English Language, provides an accessible introduction to the principles of CxG.
The main argument here is that there are too many idiosyncrasies in the meaning of words and sentences to hold on to the so-called dictionary-and-grammar view; rather, the view is that language consists of form-and-meaning pairs. The fundamental ideas are then elaborated on in the following two chapters: chapter 2 zooms in on one area where constructions play an important role, i.
The second part of the book discusses central areas of linguistic enquiry and how CxG deals with them. Chapter 4 discusses the major processes of morphology as they have been discussed and how they are dealt with in CxG. Chapter 5, in turn, addresses information structure. The final chapter deals with the issue of language variation and change, which CxG explains by assuming speakers may have different knowledge about particular constructions.
Each chapter ends with a list of study questions and suggestions for further reading, directing the student reader to key academic publications in the field.
In addition to these works on CxG, two student-focused works on present-day English grammar published in will prove to be useful resources for those who teach introductory undergraduate grammar and syntax classes. Practical Grammar , by Sara Thorne, discusses all the key concepts for a descriptive introduction to English grammar, comprehensively, clearly, and logically.
A pair of chapters deals with each particular level of grammar words, phrases, clauses, sentences, discourse. The first of each pair introduces topics and concepts. It is followed by a chapter of exercises in which students apply the concepts learned to textual analysis. The text provides a comprehensive introduction, particularly for students engaged in textual or stylistic analysis, but it does not deal with more formal aspects of grammar, for example the representation of constituent structure using syntactic trees.
English Grammar: A Resource Book for Students , by Roger Berry  , is another comprehensive introduction to English grammar, which is structured progressively into sections of increasing complexity and difficulty. The text presents a lot of material that would enhance an introductory grammar course, particularly linguistic questions or problems that students might work on. It also includes reprints of essays by several authors on grammatical topics. These provide useful additional reading for more inquisitive students and also useful discussion points and data for seminar activities.
While Thorne and Berry provide textbooks for undergraduates, Advanced English Grammar: A Linguistic Approach by Ilse Depraetere and Chad Langford  is specifically designed as a descriptive grammar for university-level learners of English as an L2. It builds on basic concepts of word classes, phrases, and grammatical functions to explain some of the grammatical idiosyncrasies of English, such as subject—verb inversion, ellipsis, uses of the auxiliary do , tag questions, expressions of tense, aspect, and modality, and their use in discourse.
Chapters 2 and 3 focus on NPs and VPs, considering complementation and modification patterns, subject—verb agreement, and voice. Chapters 4 and 5 examine aspect and modality in great descriptive detail. Chapter 6 considers discourse-level phenomena such as anaphora and connectives. The final section incorporates a great many exercises to accompany the key points of each chapter.
As such, it would make a good course-book for the kind of introductory surveys of linguistics commonly found on first-year undergraduate linguistics programmes. The chapters on semantics and pragmatics chapters 8 and 9 seem particularly comprehensive. Unlike some other books of this kind, the introduction to grammar chapter 6 includes discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of several grammatical frameworks, including phrase-structure grammar and lexical functional grammar.
However, the discussion of language variation and change includes very little on quantitative approaches; it takes a qualitative perspective instead. Chapter 10 discusses the characteristics of computer-mediated communication, and chapter 11 discusses language and gender. The focus of the book is almost exclusively on English, especially AmE, although it does include detailed discussion of several non-standard English varieties. In addition to these general works on synchronic CxG, two full-length studies appeared on issues of diachronic syntax from researchers working within a CxG framework.
After the introduction, De Smet outlines the corpus he has compiled for the current study, expanding on the corpora that are already in general use, such as the Helsinki corpus, especially for the lModE period. Chapter 3 provides a detailed description of the issue of complementation, reviews earlier work on the topic, and includes an explanation of how CxG can deal with these topics and what the advantages of the CxG framework are for this type of study.
Chapter 4 has a similar set-up but is concerned with diffusional change, i. The remainder of the book consists of three detailed studies of the development of specific patterns of complementation in the history of English. The first is concerned with for … to- infinitives, as in It was neither my intention or aim for this to happen p. De Smet investigates the spread of this pattern of complementation, asking how the regular PDE system evolved, after the first examples were attested in lME. This type was introduced around the same time as the for … to- infinitives but never became more than a marginal pattern.
In the conclusion, he also aims to answer the question why diffusion occurs at all. One of the points he makes in this respect is that the synchronic system of complementation, at any given time, is complex and may contain different generalizations at different abstract levels. It is this existing potential for variation that often provides the starting point for the spread of particular patterns. After the introduction, in which the author also introduces a biological view on language change, chapter 2 first provides a discussion of previous literature on the topics, chapter 3 presents the theoretical framework and the methodology used for the corpus studies, while chapters 4 to 6 discuss the three case studies mentioned above.
We will illustrate these concepts with the conclusions drawn from the first case study. Once the most important distinctions in meaning between these two options were lost, the most frequent item, wesan , prevailed.
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Information Structure and Syntactic Change in Germanic and Romance Languages , edited by Kristin Bech and Kristine Gunn Eide, addresses the question of this interaction from a diachronic perspective across a variety of languages and with the use of corpora that are newly annotated for the purpose of the current studies.
Several of the chapters in the book deal specifically with English. Using a diagnostic that they developed in earlier work, namely preverbal vs.
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Their results clearly show that certain categories should be considered as separate categories, while other subcategories seem to behave like one group; for instance, discourse-old referents behave differently from the group of accessible referents generic, general, or situational knowledge , which together behave in roughly the same way. They use an enriched version of the existing corpora of historical English with partially automatically added annotation for information-status categories. Their results provide an interesting outlook on the consequences of the loss of V2 for the subject: the presubject position is less often used for discourse linking, while the subject itself becomes more often inanimate because the subject takes over part of the linking function of the presubject position.
In a similar vein, subjects are less often ellipted, presumably because they are less predictable. In the second part of the chapter, she provides evidence that the use of passives increases overall after object fronting has been largely lost in eModE, which supports the hypothesis that, as one construction performing a particular function is lost, another construction with the same function increases in use.
The authors analyse four texts by John Capgrave, all written around They investigate the influence of information structure on word-order variation as well as the influence of the intended audience. Eitler and Westergaard also add further details on other topics of V2 variation discussed in the literature, such as the role of verb type especially auxiliaries and unaccusatives and of initial adverbs such as then on V2 variation. The authors consider the V2 constraint in OE and OF, stating that while both languages have been described as V2 languages, there are many differences between them; indeed, at the end of the chapter they recommend that the use of the label V2 should be reconsidered.
In their study, they focus on clauses in which the subject precedes the verb, investigating the interaction between the subject and other preverbal material. Their main findings are that OF word order is more fixed and the presubject position is more restricted, while OE word order shows more variation, and allows for more types of elements in the presubject position. They conclude that OF is more syntactically driven, while in OE information-structural motivation plays a larger role. The years —14 saw much interest in OE, particularly in the relationship between OE and other West Germanic languages.
Chapters 2 to7 address phonological and morphological developments in West Germanic from proto-West Germanic to the OE period, with chapter 6 in particular focusing on the prehistory of OE and its divergence from other West Germanic languages. This volume usefully adds to the literature on OE in at least three respects. First, it emphasizes that OE is not uniform by taking a diachronic perspective, arguing that it undergoes syntactic, morphological, and phonological change, and that many of these changes represent the playing out of changes originating in earlier stages of West Germanic.
Second, while the discussion of OE sound change covers much of the same ground as standard grammars of OE such as Hogg and Alcorn discussed below , Ringe and Taylor situate the OE sound changes in the historical West Germanic context in a much more systematic way. Second, the discussion of OE syntax in chapter 8 differs from that in existing reference works by providing a systematic treatment of OE within a current generative syntactic framework, building on and incorporating insights from much recent work in this area.
A second volume, discussing OE derivational morphology and the lexicon, is planned. Together, the two volumes will constitute an important reference work on OE. He adopts a state-of-the-art minimalist syntactic framework for his analyses of verbal syntax, the wh -system and null arguments in West Germanic.
Walkden shows, through a combination of methods, including syntactic and quantitative analysis of early textual data and careful historical reconstruction, that we can trace the development of syntactic properties of OE back into earlier stages of Germanic and reconstruct earlier stages of these changes for which we have little or no textual evidence. He argues that although syntactic reconstruction on the basis of linguistic phylogeny is more problematic than phonological or morphological reconstruction, feature-based minimalist theory may constrain permissible syntactic changes in such a way that reconstruction of certain syntactic properties of proto-Germanic, and even proto-Indo European, might be possible using the methods he proposes.
Colman makes a case for names as a source of linguistic data—in the sense that the OE onomasticon exhibits linguistic patterning. She first establishes the categorial status of names within the grammar, and their diachronic and synchronic relationship to common words such as nouns and adjectives.
She shows that careful philologically informed study of names provides evidence for the phonological and morphological reconstruction of early OE, which antedates the earliest surviving texts.
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Colman argues that names differ from other linguistic categories in their semantic and grammatical properties, in ways that need to be understood before names can be used as evidence for linguistic reconstruction. By necessity, the present book focuses on the place of names within linguistic theory, notably the notional-grammar framework proposed by John M. This is rather preliminary to the analysis of names as evidence for the phonology and morphology of early OE, however, and it is clear that the work presented here is only part of a larger story.
It will be interesting to see what further insights into OE may emerge from the this onomasticon for more information on the onomastic aspect of this study, see Section 8 below. Novel approaches to the analysis of early English data also emerge in Denison et al. The papers all share a clear empirical focus on the question of what constitutes data in the study of early English.
All address the question of how to handle and interpret incomplete historical data, in order to avoid forcing historical data to fit analytical schema or constructs which are based upon the synchronic analyses of present-day languages, notably PDE. Several papers make clear that viewing change from a present-day perspective can mislead us. Consequently, many of the papers are concerned with questions of historical continuities or discontinuities, and with functional rather than formal, theoretically driven explanations of historical phenomena.
They challenge and reappraise formally based analyses on the grounds that these analyses provide an inadequate fit to the historical data. The first section focuses on onomastics, for example the processes of name formation. The second section addresses writing practices and the relationship between changes in writing practices and linguistic variation and change, for example micro-variation in spelling patterns as evidence for phonological micro-variation Roger Lass and Margaret Laing , spelling patterns as evidence for dialect variation in OE here, R.
Fulk argues that there are more Anglian spellings in West Saxon texts than has been standardly assumed. Section III concerns itself with dialectal and sociolinguistic variation. April McMahon and Warren Maguire present the results of a new computational method for classifying languages and varieties based on a range of phonological features. This analysis produces a taxonomy in the form of a network, based on degrees of similarity or differences between the varieties.
Identifying these relationships might shed light on the historical development of the varieties in question, in a similar way as do phylogenetic approaches to the reconstruction of proto-languages. Section IV focuses on phonological change. Nikolaus Ritt argues that historically recurrent processes of consonant weakening where weakening is a decrease in perceptibility and of vowel strengthening where strengthening is an increase in perceptibility are both reflexes of English being a stress-timed language rather than a syllable-timed one.
The final section comprises two papers on historical syntax by Olga Fischer and by Anthony Warner. Both pursue a strong empirical focus, with both using large-scale historical corpora to identify generalizations and patterns of change. Crucially, both seek to explain change from the perspective of users of the historical varieties themselves, drawing insights from domains of language other than syntax to explain the behaviour of these speakers.
This has been a most useful reference work for students of OE for some time. It remains a comprehensive introduction to OE, suitable for undergraduate students who have mastered basic phonological, morphological, and syntactic concepts. It is also far more accessible than traditional OE grammars. The text has a very student-friendly, direct, and explanatory style throughout, and successfully avoids being either too erudite or too patronizing.
Instead, it makes OE interesting by setting it in its historical and linguistic context, and includes well-designed exercises, which can be used both for independent as well as class-directed study. Turning to other student-focused works, The History of English by Stephan Gramley  provides a very student-friendly overview of the history of English from its Germanic origins to the present day. It includes chapters on all the major periods of English. Its focus is on describing the linguistic consequences of external historical events in each period rather than on detailed descriptions of linguistic change e.
Chapters 10—13 discuss the development of American, African, and southern hemisphere varieties of English. Chapter 14 discusses English as a global language. Information is set out clearly in a typical textbook style including introductory chapter summaries, in-text exercises, discussion of linguistic data, and key-point summaries throughout each chapter. The major advantage of this text, particularly for those teaching or studying the history of English at undergraduate level, is that specific points in the text are supported by extensive and detailed web resources.
Broadening the historical focus yet further, The History of Languages by Tore Janson  is a wide-ranging survey of its topic, introducing a breadth of issues rather than pursuing issues in depth. Its aim is to cross the divide between language studies and historical studies. It is accessibly written, and largely descriptive, avoiding linguistic jargon.
It provides a useful introduction to language typology chapter 2 , the development of writing systems chapters 3—5 , and the languages of major civilizations, including the Chinese, the Greeks, the Romans, and the Arabs, all of which would provide useful background for students of historical linguistics. Later chapters chart how these early languages develop into the national languages we know today.
Throughout the discussion, the focus is on external history, but issues of language emergence, language maintenance, and language death are cogently discussed. The book closes with a discussion of the internationalization of languages like English. Throughout, the book provides a clear introduction to questions and issues which could usefully form the basis of more detailed study. A general problem in using electronic corpora for the study of a syntactic phenomenon is the difficulty of searching automatically for syntactic functions.
However, it does not distinguish adjuncts from other types of adverbials. These texts were then searched manually for adjunct adverbials. Naturally, there are still advantages to working with a parsed corpus. The ability to search for specific syntactic structures is useful for finding supplementary examples of phenomena that are too rare in the core corpus to grant any kind of conclusions. This implies that the main focus is on British English. However, other corpora have also been consulted. Cross-linguistic sidelights can be illuminating also in a predominantly monolingual study.
In my opinion, observations of frequency have an important place in a description of usage because they display the linguistic choices made by speakers and writers. Qualitative statements are often of little value for generalisations about language use unless they can be corroborated by quantitative observations.
The major part of this book, however, contains discussions of the qualitative aspects of the use of adjunct adverbials. The meaning of the adverbials and the significance of adverbial placement can of course only be discovered by studying each instance in context. The quantitative information is nevertheless of importance even to this kind of discussion because it provides a basis for establishing default and marked choices.
The core corpus, in which the clauses containing adjunct adverbials have been analysed in great detail, also provides the main material for the qualitative part of the study. However, whenever additional material was needed for some parts of the discussion, the whole ICE-GB, as well as the other corpora mentioned in the previous section, was consulted for supplementary examples. These examples may represent other text types than those found in the core corpus and are not included in the quantitative part of the study. The present study aims to investigate such differences in relation to adverbial usage.
Text types are defined according to external criteria, not according to linguistic features or discourse functions unlike e. For purposes of comparison, both spoken and written English have been included. There are two types of spoken English conversation and sports commentaries , three types of published written English news, fiction and academic writing and one type of unpublished written English social letters.
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The latter text type consists of personal letters to and from people who know each other. It was considered important to have at least two text types of each medium to avoid confusing medium and text type. Four of them are also found in Biber et al. The six text types differ from each other in many respects. One parameter is speech versus writing; another is public versus private.
On-line speech production typically allows little or no time for advance planning. However, conversation and sports commentaries differ somewhat in this respect. Sports commentaries are likely to be planned but not scripted, and they involve a certain degree of macrostructural boundness; the sequence of events is to a large extent determined by the unfolding of a game or race, and speakers have to observe certain conventions for the form of broadcast commentaries.
Studying adjunct adverbials 9 are about to hear. Most of the words and expressions will be taken from the same lexical field. Sports commentaries are usually monologic in form; although there may be two speakers, they tend not to interact much. A conversation is obviously not scripted, nor does it normally involve a lot of planning. There is a minimum of macrostructural boundness, the most important factor being the presence of at least two speakers who interact and negotiate the topics being talked about. The writing of a newspaper article involves a lot of constraints. Deadlines put the writer under severe time pressure.
There may also be restrictions on the format of the article: a news item which is considered important is allotted a great deal of space, whereas another may be confined to a few lines. Finally, the article may be edited by somebody other than the original writer. Writers of fiction can determine the length as well as the contents of their texts. They also have more time at their disposal than journalists writing a news article, both for planning and editing, and can pay more attention to stylistic matters. One can thus expect the language of a novel to be carefully composed. Like news articles, however, fictional texts are written for a general audience, and they are not interactive.
It may be noted that the fictional texts included in the ICE-GB vary in sub genre and in literary quality. Academic writing differs from the other genres in being written by a specialist mainly for a specialist audience. It contains technical terms and other specialised vocabulary. Although the purpose of such texts is often to present new findings, there is also a great deal of common ground between writer and addressee.
The texts selected for close reading in the present study come from the humanities, social sciences and natural sciences. Letters differ from the other three written categories in that they are not written for publication. A personal letter is intended for a specific and specified addressee. If the writer and the addressee know each other well and communicate with each other regularly, they have a fairly large pool of shared knowledge. Thus a personal letter comes close to being dialogic in form, e.
As for the written news genre, this factor has a partly positive value because the journalist is under pressure to finish the text before a deadline. The texts for the core corpus were chosen more or less at random within the selected text types in the ICE-GB. However, some adjustments were made. The sports commentaries were selected so as to represent different sports. Similarly, the academic texts were selected from different disciplines.
For a full list of the texts included in the core corpus, see the Appendix. As regards the supplementary material from the ICE-GB and other corpora, no selection has been made as regards text type. It should be noted, however, that text type can be identified in each of the corpora used in the investigation. These features bear on external or situational aspects of the text types, concerning conditions of text production as well as the final product. The table shows that the similarities and differences among the text types extend beyond the distinction between speech and writing.
These clauses were stored in a database FileMaker Pro for ease of retrieval and further annotation. Inevitably, meanings crop up in the corpus examples that seem to defy classification into established frameworks. Moreover, it is debatable what constitutes an established framework for the classification of adverbials. The analyst thus faces the problem of striking the balance between a system that is sufficiently comprehensive and delicate and one that is manageable in the analysis as well as useful in generalisations about linguistic practice.
The classification scheme developed in this book is based mainly on those of Quirk et al. Since the main material for the study comes from the ICE-GB corpus, which is fully parsed, it should be noted that my analysis does not always follow that of the ICE tagger. The theoretical framework adopted is basically functional, due to the descriptive and empirical nature of the study. Apart from the descriptive approach taken over from Quirk et al. The functional approach entails that adverbials are studied in their context and that discourse features are taken into account in the description of usage.
Such discourse features include information structure, thematisation and genre. It should be emphasised, however, that the study is data-oriented more than it is theory-oriented. The main aim is to give a description of the use of adjunct adverbials in present-day English as represented in the corpora used. The choice of theoretical framework has thus been made out of considerations of the syntactic and contextual factors that govern adverbial usage and how they can best be described.
It is also an aim to arrive at descriptions of, and explanations for, adverbial usage that can have predictive power and thus be useful in, for example, text production and language teaching. In the written unpublished material social letters , corrections occur made by the writer or by the corpus compilers.
The full ICE-GB tag also includes reference to text unit, subtext, and in the case of spoken texts, speaker. Studying adjunct adverbials 13 This information has been omitted from the tags given in the present book. Examples taken from other sources have reference tags indicating which corpus or other source they have been taken from. Examples from the London-Lund Corpus have been rendered with prosodic mark-up. Within each chapter there are surveys of the types of adjuncts that occur in that position, the frequency with which the position is used and the characteristics of the position in terms of, for example, cohesion and information structure.
There is also a chapter on sequences of adverbials that combine two or more adverbial positions. Part IV draws together findings from previous chapters. The final chapter gives an overview of findings. There is a survey of positions preferred by each adjunct type and an overview of factors that influence adverbial placement, as well as a review of adverbial categories in light of the findings of the study. Adverbs constitute a heterogeneous word class and can have a variety of functions at phrase level Quirk et al.
Besides acting as head of an adverb phrase, an adverb can modify adjectives, other adverbs, prepositions, nominal elements and verbs. At clause level, an adverb phrase typically fills the syntactic function of adverbial. However, adverbials may also be realised by noun phrases, prepositional phrases and finite, non-finite and verbless clauses.
While adverbial or adjunct is generally recognised as a clause element, there is no general agreement on its delimitation. The following sections discuss some of the problems of classification with a view to supporting the analysis used in the present study. Anne is a Scotswoman. Anne is from Scotland. Anne is in Scotland. They are thus prototypical examples of subject predicative Biber et al. In the former two, be is clearly copular, serving as a link between the subject referent and a class to which the subject referent can be assigned.
There is thus reason to distinguish between the copular and the intransitive use of be. Thus, an adverbial expression is seen as a complement and hence not an adjunct not only with copular verbs, but also with verbal expressions of appearance and existence, such as occur or to be stored, whose valency licenses adverbial complementation.
In this study, then, I assume that be can have an intransitive use and be complemented by an adverbial. The adverbial is then obligatory, and is most frequently a space adverbial, though other adverbials too can complement the intransitive be. Having established the distinction between the intransitive and a copular be, another problem arises with spatial expressions that are used metaphorically, i. With phrases expressing a metaphorical concept of space, it is difficult to decide where to draw the line between adverbial and predicative.
The adjectival use of the expression is underlined by its co-occurrence with the copular feel and a marker of gradability before the preposition. You are vulnerable here. I felt in a vulnerable position. Although there are adverbials that allow qualification for degree, e. Consequently it has not been analysed as an adverbial, but as part of a phrasal verb construction. Criteria for distinguishing multiword verbs from free combinations of verb and adverbial are outlined in Biber et al.
The criteria are partly syntactic but mostly semantic. The tagging system used for the ICE-GB, relying more consistently on syntactic criteria, marks all such particles as adverbials, whether or not they are followed by an NP. In the present study, however, the preposition is considered part of the verb phrase. The spatial expressions do not, however, specify the spatial circumstances of the process; rather they specify the referents of people.
The spatial expressions clearly modify each other progressively, i. The fact that this paraphrase with relative clauses works at all suggests that each prepositional phrase following the first is a postmodifier of the nearest preceding noun. The criterion used for considering a phrase as an adverbial in such structures is that it should be able to function independently as an adverbial in the context without the support of any preceding adverbial phrase. Such ambiguities can often be resolved by the context, linguistic or non-linguistic. It is no coincidence that all the phrases under discussion in this section are spatial.
In general, spatial expressions seem more apt than other adverbial expressions to modify the nearest preceding noun phrase. However, time expressions, particularly when-clauses, may also function as noun modifiers cf. The corresponding terms in Biber et al.
The definitions of the categories, however, are the same as in Quirk et al. These classes generally have subcategories that reflect the various meanings that can be expressed by adverbials. Adverbials which do not satisfy any of these criteria are disjuncts or conjuncts. In Quirk et al. Accordingly, an adjunct can: i be the focus of a cleft sentence It was down the road that they walked ; ii serve as the focus of alternative interrogation or negation Did they walk down the road or through the park?
B: Down the road. These features are not meant to be absolute criteria of adjunct status, but rather, characteristics that hold for most adjuncts. The defining criteria mentioned so far are mainly syntactic. However, adverbials probably illustrate better than any other grammatical category the interdependency between grammar and meaning. Nor can they distinguish different types of adjuncts or even suggest a line between disjuncts and conjuncts.
Clearly, meaning needs to be taken into account in the classification of adverbials. In Biber et al. They include both obligatory. This implies that they are the only type of adverbials that refer to aspects of things and relations in the world. A conjunct adverbial is not an integrated part of the clause structure, and its primary function is connective.
Conjuncts characteristically occur in clauseinitial position, though some of them can occupy other positions as well, especially medial. Typical examples are however, furthermore and to begin with. They are not integrated in the basic clause structure. Examples of disjuncts are probably, fortunately and honestly speaking. In addition to adjuncts, disjuncts and conjuncts, a fourth class of adverbial is defined in Quirk et al.
The subjunct may be subordinate in relation to the clause in which it occurs, or to another constituent. A broad range of meanings can be expressed by subjuncts, e. Subjuncts fall into a number of subcategories, depending on their meaning, their scope and on the kind of clause element they are subordinate to. The scope adverbials have affinities with mood, finiteness, polarity and aspect and include most disjuncts and conjuncts as well as a good number of adjuncts.
Proposition adverbials are referential and resemble the nominal constituents of a clause. The adverbials in this category are all classified as adjuncts in Quirk et al. The boundary between scope and proposition adverbials thus cuts across traditional, semantically based categories. Categories that are placed in blocks across from each other correspond roughly, but not entirely, as defining criteria may differ.
Subcategories of meaning are placed in brackets after their superordinate. However, they do apply the kind of tests outlined by Quirk et al. The class of subjunct is found only in Quirk et al. The focus of the present study is on adjuncts. I will thus not venture into a discussion of disjuncts and conjuncts. A few words need, however, to be said on the class of subjuncts. This class comprises viewpoint, focus and degree adverbials, which do not fit the syntactic description of adjuncts outlined above.
Some time adverbials are also classified by Quirk et al. Examples are just, already, yet, still, seldom, never. In the present study I choose to follow Biber et al. Accordingly, several categories of these adverbials can be recognised. The classification takes that of Quirk et al. Furthermore, not all the subcategories of the major types of adjuncts are the same as those of Quirk et al. Though the criteria for the classification are mainly semantic, the subcategories may differ with respect to syntactic features, as will be shown later. Space position adjuncts establish a spatial location for a situation or an event.
Direction adjuncts indicate a movement in space, either to a location goal or from a location source. They can also express general direction path without stating source or goal. All three types of direction adjunct can cooccur in the same clause, provided they are semantically compatible. Distance adjuncts refer to spatial extent and answer the question how far. He ran two races and He ran two miles , although prepositional phrases are also found for two miles. They are thus classified as adjuncts purely on the basis of their meaning.
Spatial expressions have many metaphorical uses, which may pose a problem for their classification. A second problem is whether metaphorical spatial expressions should be classified as space adverbials or, for instance, adverbials of respect Quirk et al. In the present analysis, adverbials where the whole concept of spatial location is transferred from a concrete to an abstract level have been classified as space adjuncts.
They are typically elicited by the questions when time position and time relationship , for how long time duration or how often time frequency. Time position adjuncts establish a temporal location for a situation or an event, which may be a point or a period in time. Duration adjuncts indicate a stretch of time, either by denoting the whole period or by stating the beginning or the end of it.
Time frequency adjuncts indicate the frequency with which the action denoted by the verb occurs. Frequency adjuncts can be definite, answering the question how many times e. Time relationship adjuncts are defined in Quirk et al. They are thus often connective, bordering on conjuncts Quirk et al.
In the present study a very broad view of manner adjuncts is taken, i. Adverbials in the categories listed below all somehow answer the question how, or in what way. Similarity adjuncts specify how an action can be compared to another and is typically realised by a prepositional phrase with un like.
Accompaniment adjuncts specify with whom the action was carried out. They may have features in common with space adjuncts: e. Means adjuncts specify by what means something was carried out. An instrument adjunct specifies an instrument used in carrying out an action. Method adjuncts are related to both instrument and means, but specify in somewhat greater detail the method by which something is attempted or achieved. Attire adjuncts specify the appearance, clothing, etc.
They express a value judgment on the content of the clause as well as on the subject referent or agent. Condition and concession adjuncts have no prototypical probing question, though under what circumstances would cover most cases. Thus, as in Biber et al. In other words purpose adjuncts are often non-factive, while result adjuncts are factive. However, cause adjuncts typically refer to a present or past state of affairs, while purpose adjuncts refer to an as yet unrealised future. If the purpose adjunct in the above example were rephrased because he wanted to try and get the penalty it would become a cause adjunct, since the wish, if not the attempt, to get the penalty would be present in the situation.
Again, the purpose category is distinguished by its non-factive nature. They can normally be elicited by the question with respect to what? However, they convey such a spread of meanings that a subcategorisation has been attempted here. Domain adjuncts convey quasispatial, and sometimes quasi-causal, circumstances. Regard adjuncts generally justify or clarify some aspect of the process. They are typically introduced by expressions such as with regard to, or as to.
Domain With the Dumfries inquiry moving into its second month, Mr Kreindler said that there was nothing his group could do. The dimension group is on the borderline between direction goal and degree. As shown in the examples below, dimension adjuncts often have the same form as direction goal adjuncts, but are about scalar rather than spatial extent. More precisely, they refer to an entity which might have been a participant — typically with subject or object function — in an agnate clause. However, the realisation of agent phrases as well as their peripheral syntactic status speak in favour of their being adjuncts.
It is related to the beneficiary meaning, but rather than denoting a participant that benefits from the action, it denotes a participant often a group on whose behalf an action is performed. Situation adjuncts refer to spatiotemporal location and are thus closely related to both time and space position adjuncts.
As shown in the example, they characteristically refer to a location in time and space simultaneously. The alternative scenario can be hypothetical as if. Focus adjuncts are often directly subordinate to one of the other elements in the clause. However, they may also have scope over more than one element, or even the whole clause, depending on such factors as intonation and placement. Viewpoint adjuncts are closely related to disjuncts in that they give a perspective on the clause. The present section discusses some examples of blends of meaning that cut across superordinate categories.
In the analysis I have looked to the context for the dominant interpretation of semantic blends. Meaning in context has thus been considered more important for the classification than surface form. The verb stand does not denote movement and thus disfavours an analysis of the final adverbial as a distance adjunct. While the form of the adverbial suggests a spatial 32 A framework for analysing adverbials interpretation, the context indicates a durative one, i. While close is indeterminate between spatial location and manner quality , by a long way conveys both distance and degree.
Considering the meaning of the latter adverbial in context, the most plausible analysis is that it is a degree adjunct, realised by a metaphorical spatial expression. Presumably, both meanings will usually be present, but one of them may dominate in a given context. In this case, a mainly causative reading is supported by the purpose adjunct at the end of the sentence.
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With the classification criteria in the present study, the two categories have different probing questions; degree adjuncts are elicited by the question to what extent, or how much, and manner adjuncts are elicited by how. As a modifier of want the degree meaning of desperately prevails, while other verbs may favour a manner reading, e. In the example, the manner reading is supported by the context, viz. Space and time adjuncts are vastly more frequent than any other type.
Manner and contingency adjuncts are about equally frequent in third and fourth place, but less than half as frequent as time and space. Next in order of frequency are participant adjuncts. The distribution of semantic types of adverbials is likely to vary across text types. However, the predominance of time and space adjuncts has been noted in previous studies too, e.
There are, however, some exceptions. The problems can be related to both semantics and syntax. First of all, time subjuncts often overlap in meaning with adverbials classified as time adjuncts, which is awkward if the classification is based on meaning. A further complication arises with adverbials which are analysed as adjuncts by Quirk et al. Then he looked up. It was then that he looked up. Did he look up then or later? A: When did John look up? B: Then. The same feature is found with at least some of the time subjuncts listed above. However, neither of the adverbials could be the focus of negation, clefting or an alternative question, or be the answer to a when-question.
To a great extent their position is fixed, even though their scope is the whole clause. Rather, the placement of these adverbials varies with the complexity of the verb phrase they occur with. Like the negator not, they are placed after the operator in a complex verb phrase e.
With simple verb phrases they are placed in front of the verb unless the verb is lexical be, in which case the adverbial normally comes after the verb e. It may be of some importance that the temporal subjuncts listed in Quirk et al. It is thus possible that word class membership can account for some of the syntactic peculiarities of these adverbs. One consequence of assigning time adverbials to different classes is that the group of frequency adverbials is split in two.
Roughly speaking, the dividing line can be drawn between definite and indefinite frequency. The closed-class adverbs that can denote indefinite frequency e. Some of these adverbials are classified as subjuncts in Quirk et al. Thus all occurrences of time frequency and relationship have been included in the present investigation.
Some of the categories may need justification. This has been done because the realisation as a single word or a phrase of two or more words may have a bearing on the positional flexibility of the adverbial. These distinctions are thus pragmatically rather than theoretically founded. These figures agree fairly well with those presented in Quirk et al. The main difference is a greater proportion of adverbs and adverb phrases in Quirk et al. The explanation for this is that adverb phrases are more frequent in the non-adjunct categories, as shown by Biber et al.
The realisation types are not evenly distributed over the semantic categories of adjuncts. For example, finite clauses are more common among contingency adjuncts than in other categories; focus adjuncts are almost exclusively realised by adverbs, and participant adjuncts are found only The classification of adverbials 39 in the form of prepositional phrases in the present material. Prepositional phrases also dominate within the categories of space, respect, situation and viewpoint. The definitions are mainly meaning-based, as in Biber et al.
Consequently, Quirk et al. The subcategories of adjuncts are also defined on the basis of meaning. Most of the terminology used comes from Quirk et al. Other features of the syntax of adverbials are also discussed here, such as obligatoriness and scope. While the former is tied to verb valency and is thus purely syntactic, the latter is partly syntactic and partly semantic. Adverbials are the only type of element that can occur in sequences within the same clause. Finally, some discourse features that are believed to have a bearing on adverbial placement are reviewed at the end of the chapter.
This implies that adverbial placement must be studied in the context of a clause. It is common to regard the clause as a structure with the verb as the nucleus e. The potential presence of other clause elements is dependent on the transitivity or valency of the verb. The subject, the operator, or other constituents may be ellipted, but the lexical verb needs to be present in order to make a description of word order meaningful. These considerations allow the inclusion of subjectless clauses, such as imperatives and non-finite clauses, but not verbless clauses.
It should be noted that the purpose of the above observations has been to arrive at a serviceable unit for the study of adverbial positions, not to give a definition of a clause. The definitions of adverbial positions given by various linguists differ mainly in the names of the positions and the number of subdivisions that are considered relevant. In the classification of adverbial positions used here, only medial position has been subdivided. Both initial and end position could certainly be subdivided on account of, for example, the relative positions of adjacent adverbials.
However, the number of adverbial sub positions has been kept low in order to make the system economical enough to work with. The system is largely based on Quirk et al. In practice, initial position usually means a position before the subject, or before the verb in cases of S—V inversion or subject ellipsis. The system from Quirk et al. More specifically, adverbials rarely occur between two auxiliaries.
Thus, Quirk et al. The adverbials that occur between the main verb and the predicative in this type of construction are basically the same ones that are found in the other variants of medial position, such as short adverbials of time or manner. The not-position is simply the place usually taken by the negative particle, viz. Florenda Maria is now a local heroine.
However, the construction would be incomplete without the part following the adjunct, thus suggesting that the position of the focused adjunct is a variant of medial. Since end and medial position seem equally unsatisfactory as names for this position, the cleft focus position has been added to the positions outlined so far.
Although it is not common to include this as an adverbial position, it has been desirable to do so here, in order to account for the whole range of positions available to adjunct adverbials. There are two main types of such subjectless clauses: finite clauses where the subject has been ellipted, and non-finite clauses, which regularly occur without a subject. I this time had the foresight to stick protective cream upon my face.
However, rather than speculating what an expansion of an elliptical clause might look like, I decided to consistently view the position before any expressed obligatory clause element as initial. Some syntactic features of adverbial placement 45 Subjectless non-finite clauses represent a slightly different problem, since they are complete structures. They may not even have a subject slot, in which case the addition of a subject might entail a reorganisation of other clause elements. Generally, the same principles of analysis have been applied as with elliptical clauses, and preverbal adverbials have been assigned to initial position.
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Jan Nuyts. Concepts, Syntax, and their Interface. Tanya Reinhart. Semantics of Complex Words. Linguistic Units and Items. Negative Contexts. Ton van der Wouden. Outstanding Dissertations in Linguistics. How to write a great review. The review must be at least 50 characters long.
Related Free Adjuncts and Absolutes in English: Problems of Control and Interpretation (Germanic Linguistics)
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